Dr. Carol Ireland Publications

Journal articles

In press

Anderson, A.P.A, Bryce, J, Ireland, C.A., and Ireland, J.L. (in press). A preliminary review of cyber-detection factors: offering from a systematic review. Salus: An International Journal of Law Enforcement and Public Safety.

2017 – 2019

Ireland, C.A., Ireland, J.L., Jones, N.S., Chu, S., & Lewis, M. (2019). Predicting Security Incidents in High Secure Male Psychiatric Care. International Journal of Psychiatry, 64, 40 – 52.

Hughes, C. Ireland, J.L. and Ireland, C.A. (2018). Examining the functions of prison critical incidents: A preliminary qualitative analysis of public reporting. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, 4(2), 101-110.

Ireland, C.A., and Huxley, S. (2018). Psychological trauma in professionals working with traumatised children. Journal of Forensic Practice, 20 (3), 141-151.

Lewis, M , Ireland, J.L , Abbott, J and Ireland, CA (2017) Initial development of the psychopathic processing and personality assessment (PAPA) across populations. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry., 54, 118 – 132.

Madden, A. and Ireland, C.A. (2017). Developmental Factors and Drug Use in Young Offenders. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, 3 (1), 51 – 60.

2015 – 2016

Barker, L. F., Ireland, J.L., Chu, S. and Ireland, C. A. (2016). Sleep and its association with aggression among prisoners: Quantity or quality?. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 47, 115 – 121. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 9 times.

Ireland, J.L, Bates-Gaston, K, Markey, K, Greenwood, L and Ireland, C.A. (2016). Evaluation of a cognitive skills programme for male prisoners – Exploring treatment effectiveness. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, 2 (4), 244 – 249.

Ireland, J.L, Ireland, C.A. and Power, C. L. (2016). Attitudes towards prisoner-to-prisoner bullying and the association with prison environments: Examining the components. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 8 (2), 124 – 136. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 3 times.

Ireland, J.L, Ireland, C.A, Lewis, M, Jones, C and Keeley, S. (2016). Initial development of an implicit and explicit approach to assess psychopathy, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 46, 117 – 128. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 3 times.

Ireland, J, Priday, L, Ireland, C, Chu, S, Kilcoyne and J, Mulligan, C. (2016). Predicting hospital aggression in secure psychiatric care, British Journal of Psychiatry Open, 2, 96–100. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 1 time.

Ireland, C.A., Ozanne, R and Ireland, J.L. (2016). Brief review spotlight: Females who sexually offend. Journal of Forensic Practice, 18 (4), 296 – 300.

McBride, H. and Ireland, C. A. (2016). The impact of coping style, self-efficacy, emotional reaction and resilience on trauma related intrusive thoughts. Journal of Forensic Practice, 18 (3), 229 – 239. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 2 times.

Porter, C.P., Ireland, C.A,. Gardner, K.J. and Eslea, M. (2016). Exploration of emotion regulation experiences associated with borderline personality features in a non-clinical sample. Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation, 3:8 doi: 10.1186/s40479-016-0040-6. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 2 times.

Ireland, C.A., Alderson, K. and Ireland, J.L. (2015). Sexual exploitation in children: Nature, prevalence and distinguishing characteristics reported in young adulthood. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 24(6), 603-622.

Ireland, C.A, Halpin, L., and Ireland, J.L. (2015). Exploring individual factors associated with critical incidents in a secure psychiatric setting: A preliminary study. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 22 (2), 259 – 272. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 1 time.

2012 – 2014

Dewa, L. Ireland, C. A. and Ireland, J.L. (2014). Terror Management Theory: The influence of terrorism salience on anxiety and the buffering of cultural worldview and self-esteem, Journal of Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 21(3), 370-384. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 5 times.

Ireland, C. A., Halpin, L. and Sullivan, C. (2014). Critical incidents in a forensic psychiatric population: An exploratory study of motivational factors. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 25 (6), 714 – 732. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 2 times.

Ferguson, K, Ireland, C.A. and Ireland, J.L. (2013). Developing a self-report measure to assess disclosure strategies in adult male prisoners and its association with personality, Journal of Forensic Practice, 15(2), 97 – 108. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 3 times.

Ferguson, K., & Ireland, C. A. (2012). Attitudes towards victims and perpetrators of hypothetical rape scenarios involving intoxication: an application to the UK, Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 4(2), 96 – 107. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 10 times.

2009 – 2011

Dewa, L, Ireland, C.A. and Gredecki, N. (2011). The interpersonal style and complementarity between crisis negotiators and forensic inpatients, Journal of Family Violence, 26, 277 – 283. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 2 times.

Ireland, J.L., Ireland, C.A., (2011).  Personality structure among prisoners: How valid is the Five Factor Model and can it offer support for Eysenck’s theory of criminality?  Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 21 (1), 35 – 50. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 13 times.

Davison, S and Ireland C.A. (2009). Substance misuse: the relationship between attachment styles, personality traits and coping in drug and non-drug users, Journal of Drugs and Alcohol Today, 22 – 28. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 16 times.

Higgins, C. & Ireland, CA. (2009). Attitudes towards male and female sex offenders: a comparison of forensic staff, prison officers and the general public in Northern Ireland, British Journal of Forensic Practice, 14 – 19. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 42 times.

Ireland, C.A. & Vecchi, G.M. (2009). The Behavioral Influence Stairway Model (BISM): a framework for managing terrorist crisis situations? Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 1(3), 203 – 218. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 9 times.

2006 – 2008

Ireland, C.A. (2008). Cognitive impairment and sex offending: management during therapy and factors in offending, The British Journal of Forensic Practice, 10 (2), 18 – 25. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 6 times.

Ireland, J.L. and Ireland, C.A. (2008). Intra-group aggression among prisoners: bullying intensity and exploration of victim-perpetrator Mutuality, Aggressive Behavior, 34 (1), 76 – 87. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 47 times.

Ireland, C. A. (2007). What is Sadism and Sexual Sadism anyway?, Forensic Update, 90, 29 – 33.

Brown, S.L., & Ireland, C.A. (2006). Coping style and distress in newly incarcerated male adolescents, Journal of Adolescent Health, 656 – 661. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 69 times.

Ferguson, K., & Ireland, C.A. (2006). Attitudes towards sex offenders and the influence of offence type: a comparison of staff working in a forensic setting and students, British Journal of Forensic Practice, 8 (2), 10 – 19. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 89 times.

2003 – 2005

Ireland, J.L., Boustead, R., & Ireland, C.A. (2005). Coping style and psychological health among adolescent prisoners: a study of young and juvenile offenders, Journal of Adolesence, 28, 411 – 423. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 132 times.

Ireland, C.A. (2005). Sex offender group therapy and personal impact on the client: Is there a risk of retraumatisation?, Forensic Update, 82, July.

Ireland, C.A., & Rogers, J. (2004). Adapted Sex Offender Therapy: Responsivity Factors, Forensic Update, 78, 15 – 20.

Ireland, J.L., & Ireland, C. A. (2003). How do prisoners define bullying? A study of adult, young and juvenile male offenders. Journal of Legal and Criminological Psychology, 8(2), 159 – 173. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 54 times.

Ireland, C.A., Naylor, K., & Wilkes-Riley, F. (2003). Personality disorder and psychopathy: facing challenges in sex offender group treatment, Forensic Update, 75, 31 – 36.

Pitman, I., & Ireland, C.A. (2003). Cognitive ability sex offender therapy, Forensic Update, 73, 14 – 19.

1999 – 2000

Ireland, C.A. (2000). Development and Evaluation of a bullying awareness training package for staff, Forensic Update, July.

Ireland, C.A. & Archer, J. (2000). Homesickness among a prison population, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 5, 97-106. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 4 times.

Ireland, C.A. & Ireland, J.L. (2000). Descriptive Analysis of the nature and extent of bullying behavior in a maximum security prison, Aggressive Behaviour, 26, 213 – 223. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 50 times.

Ireland, C.A. (1999). Conditions experienced by staff in the control room of a dispersal prison, Prison Service Journal, 121 (January).

Book chapters

2018

Ireland, J.L., Ireland, C.A., and Birch, P. (2018). Violent and Sexual Offenders: Assessment, Treatment and Management, 2nd Edition, Routledge, UK. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 24 times.

Ireland, C.A., and Worthington, R. (2018). Treatment approaches for sexual violence. In Ireland, J.L., Ireland, C.A., and Birch, P. (2018). Violent and Sexual Offenders: Assessment, Treatment and Management, 2nd Edition, Routledge, UK.

Ireland, J.L, Birch, P. and Ireland, C.A. (2018). The Routledge International Handbook of Human Aggression: Current Issues and Perspectives, Routledge, UK.

Ireland, C.A. (2018). Examining harmful sexual behaviour in male children: Considering the implications for practice. In Ireland, J.L, Birch, P. and Ireland, C.A. (2018). The Routledge International Handbook of Human Aggression: Current Issues and Perspectives, Routledge, U

2017

Ireland. C.A. (2017) Assessment of hostage situations and their perpetrators: In the context of domestic violence. Assessments in Forensic Practice: A Handbook (Eds) K.D. Browne, A. R. Beech, and L. A. Craig. Wiley: UK

Ireland, J.L, Ireland, C.A., Fisher, M., & Gredecki, N. (2017). The Routledge International Handbook of Forensic Psychology in Secure Settings, Routledge, UK. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 10 times.

Ireland, C.A. (2017). Functions of critical incidents and their management in secure forensic services. In Ireland, J.L, Ireland, C.A., Fisher, M., & Gredecki, N. (Eds). The Routledge International Handbook of Forensic Psychology in Secure Settings, Routledge, UK.

2011

Ireland, C.A. and Craig, L. (2011) Adult Sex Offender Assessment. In International Perspectives on the Assessment and Treatment of Sexual Offenders: Theory, Practice and Research Eds: D. P. Boer, L. A. Craig, R. Eher, M. H. Miner, and F. Pfafflin. Wiley-Blackwell: UK

Ireland. C.A, Fisher, M. and Vecchi. G.M. (2011). Conflict and Crisis Communication: Principles and Practice. UK: Routledge. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 10 times.

Ireland, C.A. (2011). Application of the critical incident to mental illness and cognitive impairment: considerations and implications. In (Eds.) Ireland. C.A, Fisher, M. and Vecchi. G.M. Conflict and Crisis Communication: Principles and Practice. UK: Routledge.

Ireland, C. A. (2011). Application of the critical incident to personality disorder: considerations and implications. In (Eds.) Ireland. C.A, Fisher, M. and Vecchi. G.M. Conflict and Crisis Communication: Principles and Practice. UK: Routledge.

Ireland, C. A. (2011). Held against their choice: behaviour, considerations and implications for the hostage. In (Eds.) Ireland. C.A, Fisher, M. and Vecchi. G.M. Conflict and Crisis Communication: Principles and Practice. UK: Routledge.

Ireland. C. A. (2011) ‘Introduction to Forensic Psychology I: Working with organisations and offenders’ in G. Davey (Ed.), Introduction to Applied Psychology, BPS Wiley-Blackwell: UK.

2010

Ireland C.A. and Fisher, M (2010). Consultancy and Advising in Forensic Practice: Empirical and Practical Guidelines. UK: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. As of March 2019, this paper has been cited 3 times.

Ireland, C.A and Fisher, M. (2010). Acting as the consultant advisor in a crisis situation. In (Eds) Ireland C.A. and Fisher, M (2010). Consultancy and Advising in Forensic Practice: Empirical and Practical Guidelines. UK: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.

Ireland, C.A. (2010). The role of a consultant: functions, skills, competences and presentation. In (Eds) Ireland C.A. and Fisher, M (2010). Consultancy and Advising in Forensic Practice: Empirical and Practical Guidelines. UK: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.

Ireland, C.A. (2010). Key stages and factors in the consultancy focus and relationship. In (Eds) Ireland C.A. and Fisher, M (2010). Consultancy and Advising in Forensic Practice: Empirical and Practical Guidelines. UK: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.

Fisher, M., Ireland, C.A., and Sullivan, E. (2010). Research in Prison. In Grendon and the Emergence of Forensic Therapeutic Communities: Developments in Research and Practice. Wiley-Blackwell: UK.

2008

Ireland, C.A. (2008). Intellectual Assessment, in Towl, G, Farrington, D, Crighton, D & Hughes, G (eds) Dictionary of Forensic Psychology. UK: Willan Publishing.

Ireland, C.A. (2008). Neuropsychological Assessment, in Towl, G, Farrington, D, Crighton, D & Hughes, G (eds) Dictionary of Forensic Psychology. UK: Willan Publishing.

Ireland, J.L, Ireland, C.A. and Birch, P. (2008). Violent and Sexual Offenders: Assessment, Treatment and Management. UK: Willan Publishing.

Conference papers

Cramer, R.J., Ireland, J.L., Hartley, V., Long, M.M., Ireland, C.A., & Wilkins, T. (2019). Working in secure forensic psychiatric settings: Results from a workplace health assessment. American Psychology-Law Society Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon, US, March 14–16.

Ireland, C.A. and Ireland, J.L. (2015). Introducing the Life Minus Violence-Enhanced Harmful Sexual Behaviour (LMV-HSB). Division of Forensic Psychology Conference, Manchester, 1 – 3rd July.

Ireland, J.L., Ireland, C.A., Fisher, M. & Whiteside, I. (2014). Bullying among prisoners: The role of emotions and externalizing behaviours for bully-victims, Division of Forensic Psychology Conference, Glasgow University.

Keeley, S. and Ireland, C.A. (2014). Assessing psychopathy in a student sample; Examining a role for aggressive beliefs, hostility and empathy, Division of Forensic Psychology Conference, Glasgow University.

McNeill, K, Ireland, C.A., Ireland, J.L and Chu, S. (2014). Staff Perspectives of Critical Incidents: An Exploration of Perceived Functions and Protective Factors, Division of Forensic Psychology Conference, Glasgow University.

Turner, P., Ireland, J.L and Ireland, C.A. (2014) Examining intention to aggress in a forensic setting: Applying the Multifactor Model of Bullying in Secure Settings, Division of Forensic Psychology Conference, Glasgow University.

Ireland, C.A., Halpin, L, Ireland, J.L., Higgins, M and Knowles, M. (2012). Exploring motivations for critical incidents: Personality, coping skills and poor social problem solving in a mentally disordered forensic male sample. British Psychological Society Conference, London, 18 – 20th April 2012.

Ireland, C.A. (2011). Application of Crisis Negotiation to individuals with Mental Disorder. The Second North American Correctional and Criminal Justice Psychology Conference, Sheraton Centre, Toronto, Canada, 2 – 4th June 2011.

Ireland, J.L and Ireland, C.A. (2011). Innovations in Aggression Therapy and Intervention: Life Minus Violence-Enhanced. The Second North American Correctional and Criminal Justice Psychology Conference, Sheraton Centre, Toronto, Canada, 2 – 4th June 2011.

Ireland, J.L., Turner, P., Money, C., Graham-Kevan, N, Ireland, C.A., Morris-King, S, Xuereb, S and Power, C. (2010). Developing and evaluating a long term aggression treatment programme: Life Minus Violence-Enhanced®™. Division of Forensic Psychology Conference, Kent University, Canterbury

Ireland, C.A. (2008). Held against your choice: being taken hostage. Division of Forensic Psychology Conference, Edinburgh Conference Centre, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, June.

Ireland, C.A. (2008). Crisis Negotiation with a mentally disordered forensic population: application of models and approaches. Division of Forensic Psychology Conference, Edinburgh Conference Centre, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, June

Bailey, K and Ireland, C. A. (2007). Hostage Taking in Secure Services: Assessing and Managing the Role of Mental Disorder. 30th International Congress on Law and Mental Health Abstract Resumes, Padua, June, Springer: Netherlands.

Brown, S.L and Ireland, C. A. (2007). Coping with Prisoners: Current status and Future Directions. 30th International Congress on Law and Mental Health Abstract Resumes, Padua, June, Springer: Netherlands.

Ireland, C. A. (2007). Cognitive Impairment and Sexual Offending: Management during therapy and factors in offending. 30th International Congress on Law and Mental Health Abstract Resumes, Padua, June, Springer: Netherlands.

Pitman, I., & Ireland, C.A. (2003). Failing IQ? The need to develop better understanding of individual cognitive abilities and inabilities within the courts and custodial treatment services, Paper presented at the Psychology and Law Conference, Edinburgh, July.

Wilkes-Riley, F. Naylor, K., & Ireland, C.A. (2002). Sex offender treatment for clients with personality disorder: The story so far. Programme and abstracts from the Division of Forensic Psychology Conference, University of Manchester, 3 – 5th of April.

Ireland, C.A., Lattimore, P.J., & Archer, J. (2001). Early prison life: role of coping and homesickness on health among young offenders. Programme and abstracts from the Division of Forensic Psychology Conference, University of Birmingham, 4 – 6th April 2001.

Ireland, C.A. & Ireland, J.L. (2000). Descriptive Analysis of the nature and extent of bullying behavior in a maximum security prison, Paper presented at the International Society for Research into Aggression, Valencia, Spain.

Ireland, C.A., & Archer, J. (1999). Homesickness amongst a young offender population, Programme and Abstracts from the Division of Forensic Psychology Conference, Churchill College: University of Cambridge.

Invited Conference Paper Presentations (As invited paper/keynote)

Ireland, C.A. (2018). INVITED PAPER. Critical incidents in forensic secure care: Motivational themes and implications, 27th September 2018, Violent and Sexual Offenders Conference: Assessment, Treatment and Management, Regents University, London.

Ireland, C.A. (2018). KEYNOTE. Staff exposure to psychologically traumatised young people: A systematic review, 28th September 2018, CCATS Excellence Driven Conference, Poulton-le-Fylde, UK.

Ireland, C.A. and McKenna, D. (2017). INVITED PAPER. Critical incidents in forensic secure care: motivational themes and implications, 9 – 15th July, International Congress on Law and Mental Health, Charles University, Prague.

Ireland, C.A. (2017). INVITED PAPER. Harmful Sexual Behaviour in Male Youth: Developmental factors and overlap with general criminality, Harmful Sexual Behaviour in Children and Young People: Sex, Crime and Punishment conference, South West Yorkshire Partnership, NHS Foundation Trust, 18th October 2017, Wakefield, UK.

Ireland, C.A. (2016). KEYNOTE. Harmful sexual behaviour in male adolescents. Harmful sexual behaviour in children and young people: from policy to practice Conference, South West Yorkshire Partnership, NHS Foundation Trust, 10th November 2016, Wakefield, UK.

Ireland, C.A. (2014). KEYNOTE. Engagement with aggressive individuals who have cognitive impairment. Royal College of Psychiatrists Section of Neuropsychiatry Meeting, 4 – 5th September, Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford.

Ireland, J.L., Ireland, C.A, Wilks-Riley, F and Pinschof, J. (2012). INVITED PAPER. Evaluating Expert Witness Psychological Reports in Family Court. International Association for the study of Attachment Conference, Germany, Frankfurt, 14 – 16th September.

Ireland, J.L. and Ireland, C. A. (2012). INVITED PAPER. Getting the best out of your psychology assessment. Merseyside Family Justice Council Day Conference, LACE Conference Centre, Liverpool, 18th October 2012.

Ireland, C.A. (2010). INVITED PAPER. Crisis Negotiation: Role of the Crisis Negotiator Advisor. A Flavour of Psychology: British Psychological Society, Nottingham University, November 2010.

Ireland, C.A. (2009). INVITED PAPER. Crisis Negotiation: Role of the Crisis Negotiator Advisor. A Flavour of Psychology: Northern Ireland Branch of the British Psychological Society, Queens University, 4th March 2009.

Ireland, C. A. (2009). INVITED PAPER. Cognitive Impairment in Sex Offenders. Care and Adoption: Assessments for the Family Courts. Evening Seminar: Family Law, Family Law Chambers, London, 8th December 2009.

Ireland, C. A. (2009). INVITED PAPER. Crisis Negotiation: Role of the Crisis Negotiator Advisor. Flavour of Psychology Conference: Northern Ireland Branch of the British Psychological Society, Queens University, Belfast, 4th March.

Ireland, C. A. (2008). KEYNOTE. Application of Crisis Negotiation to Mental Disorder. One day workshop. FBI Academy. Washington DC, September.

Ireland, C.A. (2008). INVITED PAPER. Crisis Negotiation: Application to Personality Traits, Characteristics and Cognitive Impairment. Police North-West Conference, November 2008, Llandudno, Wales.

Ireland, C.A. (2008). INVITED PAPER. Crisis Negotiation: Application to Mental Disorder – challenging traits/behaviours. Division of Clinical Psychology Annual Conference,10 -12 December, Congress Centre, London, UK.

Ireland, C.A., & Pitman, I. (2003). INVITED PAPER. The impact of cognitive functioning on intervention work with individuals who have committed sexual offences, Paper presented at Partnerships in Care psychology conference, Reebok Stadium, Bolton, November